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 Post subject: Values, trust, and cultural backlash in conservation
PostPosted: October 10th, 2017, 4:09 pm 
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Joined: June 10th, 2010, 8:49 pm
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Open access! And possibly explains some of what goes on around here.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... via%3Dihub

The global rise of populism is having a profound effect on policies across many issues. We explore the potential
effects on wildlife conservation using the western United States as a case study. Global populist trends have been
explained through the phenomenon of cultural backlash, wherein those left behind in the value shift beginning
post-World War II started to mobilize by the end of the century to protect their core values and traditions. Our
prior work suggests that wildlife values in the western United States are shifting from traditional domination to
mutualism orientations. The current study looked for indications of backlash from the American hunting culture
that may be associated with that shift. Data from a 19-state survey (n = 12,673) revealed that, in states with a
higher prevalence of mutualism, residents with domination values had lower levels of trust in the state wildlife
agency. Traditional residents were also less supportive of broadly-inclusive governance models, and the potential
for social conflict over wildlife issues was much higher in those states. Finally, we found evidence of
actions to “fight back” against change among traditional groups in the growth of ballot initiatives from 1990 to
2016 to protect hunting rights. Backlash will likely affect different countries and jurisdictions differently, contingent
on the historical and cultural context. Nonetheless, it will be a global force with important implications
for conservation governance, even if only to intensify conflict. Governance innovations will be necessary to help
conservation institutions adapt to dramatic changes in the socio-political environment.


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 Post subject: Re: Values, trust, and cultural backlash in conservation
PostPosted: October 10th, 2017, 7:15 pm 
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Joined: June 8th, 2010, 11:13 pm
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The authors' definitions of "domination" and "mutualism" seem troubling and unhelpful to opening a meaningful dialogue between what the authors characterize as polar/mutually-exclusive positions.

Quote:
Mutualist values, for example, are associated with beliefs that human activity should be limited for the sake of wildlife protection, while domination values are tied to a belief that wildlife exists for human use.
. . .
A domination orientation was indicated by beliefs representing dimensions of hunting and wildlife use, whereas a mutualism orientation was indicated by belief dimensions of caring and social affiliation.


I submit perhaps these definitions are too generalized/polarized, and that there instead exists a continuum upon which most people will fall somewhere in between the two extremes. What is even meant by "wildlife use," or "caring," in these contexts?

There's a lot of broad-brushing, not just in these two definitions but attempting some social commentary to boot; e.g. assuming a culture of hunting/fishing necessarily means stereotyping gender roles, and also assuming the natural (dare I say the authors' hoped) progression for human society is to abandon consumptive use of animals.

Maybe I'm being overly critical but these things stuck out to me during an admittedly quick skim of the text.


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 Post subject: Re: Values, trust, and cultural backlash in conservation
PostPosted: October 11th, 2017, 7:13 am 
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Joined: October 18th, 2011, 12:03 pm
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Chris, I find the definitions to be on point, having some prior familiarization with examining the concept mutualism, which doesnt need quotations as the term isnt an invention of the author of this piece.

Many people might think they fall in somewhere in between as you stated but it most frequently extends only as far as their own reasons for caring, or for usage. The caring means being conscious of ones own impacts and modifying ones choices even if inconvenient or in opposition to gain.

Dominion is just what we see, all around us with development and a market driven society and is different from other forms of natural dominion of an organism that might exist because in part of the human construct of money which is wholly specific to our relationships with the world and with each other.

On the hunting, although case by case deviations from stereotypes exist in hunting it is demographically dominated by males and has been through all cultures, to preserve and protect motherhood and the rearing of young.

The thing I like about mutualistic thinking is it keeps at the forefront the actual reality that we are a single species and that there are millions and millions of other species on the planet yet we have polarized them.


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 Post subject: Re: Values, trust, and cultural backlash in conservation
PostPosted: October 11th, 2017, 7:43 am 
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An illustration of how subtle and deeply ingrained what I will term "Friendly Dominion" is, can be noticed in conservation appeals - "We must preserve [fill in blank] for our future generations, our children's children etc. Its the thing that relates to our sensibilities most readily. Instead of for its own sake, apart from our enjoyment, use, advantage.


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 Post subject: Re: Values, trust, and cultural backlash in conservation
PostPosted: October 11th, 2017, 1:59 pm 
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Even without the achievement of a goal its probably useful mentally to be aware of any form of habituated perspective one might have.


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 Post subject: Re: Values, trust, and cultural backlash in conservation
PostPosted: October 11th, 2017, 2:45 pm 
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I had some of the initial reactions as you Chris. I'm not familiar with the sociology field but the "dominance" model struck me as offensive. I think Kelly is right that it comes from "dominion", ie that resources are to be used by humans. I'm strongly on the dominance side of the coin but I see the push against mutalism as troubling.

Some of the social commentary seemed a little too tight, a little too political. But I thought it was a compelling story. At least its helped me make a little sense of the world right now. And I was entertained which doesn't always happen when reading papers.


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 Post subject: Re: Values, trust, and cultural backlash in conservation
PostPosted: October 12th, 2017, 9:44 am 

Joined: December 3rd, 2010, 12:06 pm
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Oh, I think it explains or at least contextualizes a whole lot of what goes on around here. That, and normal intergenerational friction, I reckon. It's interesting seeing the 2 biggest generations in American history juxtaposed. As a leading-edge Gen X'er, I feel sort of caught in the middle, with strong impulses toward both of the other generations but I think a lot more in common with the boomers. Not to give too much credence to stereotypes - folks is folks.

Anyway, I agree that the term "domination" is a bit sharp-elbowed. "Utilitarian" is possibly more common, basically covers the same stuff, and is I think less harshly outspoken. But the authors - at least the 2 lead authors - are some of the luminaries in the field of Human Dimensions (in wildlife management). So for all I know, it is the term du jour. My education included basically zero human-dimensions stuff, it's all been on-the-job learning. I would call that a terrible defect of the system that extruded me.

For more interesting thoughts on this topic, I highly recommend the cited works Decker et al 2016 and particularly Jacobson & Decker 2008.

Kelly might like Holling & Meffe, 1996. That one was pretty radical at the time.

Here's one of the early works that laid the foundation for some of this stuff: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/250613584_Wildlife_value_orientations_A_conceptual_and_measurement_approach

cheers


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 Post subject: Re: Values, trust, and cultural backlash in conservation
PostPosted: October 13th, 2017, 3:25 am 
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Jimi wrote:
Anyway, I agree that the term "domination" is a bit sharp-elbowed. "Utilitarian" is possibly more common, basically covers the same stuff, and is I think less harshly outspoken.


Excellent suggestion. I'm very interested in the human dimension as well, and as such it surprises me that connotations of words to describe stakeholders (even/especially if they're counter to one's personal opinions on How the World Should Work) didn't seem to be taken into account...after all, I think if you want to have a meaningful conversation with someone holding an opposing viewpoint, it's probably better not to call them something--however accurately one may think the description fits--that tends to create hostility (and perhaps even contribute to spawning the "backlash" noted). To me, it's akin to a pro-hunting/fishing group calling anyone inclined to a less-consumptive approach "tree huggers." Hard to gain traction that way.


Quote:
the system that extruded me.


Another wonderful turn of phrase! :lol:


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